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VOYAGE ESTIMATES                              105

time occupied. If, for example, the vessel is proceeding
from Cardiff to Rio (5,035 miles) the time occupied would be
approximately 24-25 days.

Secondly, the master has now to provide bunkers for a
25 day trip, assuming that he will re-bunker at port of

The amount of fuel burned by a steamer per day differs
according to the type of vessel; for a vessel of 10,000 tons the
figure may be taken here to be 25 tons per day. This makes
the total fuel burned 625 tons. Allowing a safety margin
of 5 days, 750 tons could be bunkered for this trip. Pro-
vision must be made for delay due to stress of weather, and
other unforeseen circumstances, and an allowance of 5-6
tons per day for lying to in port must also be made.

A third point that has to be considered is the question
of expense in connection with Port Charges, Cargo Charges,
and Maintenance or Running Costs.

It is as well to remember that the main Port Charge is
usually either dock dues, river dues or harbour dues, accord-
ing to the port visited, and in most ports of the world
such dues are usually based on the net registered tonnage
(N.R.T.) of the vessel, that is to say, so much per N.R.T,

In U.K. ports the vessel will have to pay ligM dues also
based on N.RT. and at a great number of ports pilotage,
and possibly towage charges will be incurred, and usually
an agency fee must be allowed for.

Under Cargo Charges will come stevedores* charges for
loading or discharging and tallying, but whether these
appear on the estimate will depend upon the terms of
the C/P, which may provide for free loading and/or dis-

Maintenance or Running Costs will include such items as
provisions, deck and engine stores, insurance, wages, allow-
ance for repairs, etc., and the shipowner or broker should
know the average daily cost of these items.

Commissions payable must also be calculated in the
estimate, and very often an allowance for depreciation is